For years, evolutionary biologists have battled over the origin of flight. Did dinosaurs run along the ground and take off, or did they jump from trees? The first idea is called the cursorial hypothesis; the latter, the arboreal hypothesis. In 2003, Ken Dial [U Montana] had an idea: maybe watching partridge chicks could inform the debate. This month his approach made the journal Nature.1 Dial’s team videotaped chukar partridges from hatching to adulthood, and noticed their flapping behavior. As chicks, they hold out their undeveloped forelimbs and appear to use them as stabilizers when running up slopes and over obstacles. By the time they have grown up, this behavior has “evolved” into full flapping flight. The evolutionary history of flight unfolded before his eyes:Based on our results, we put forth an ontogenetic-transitional wing (OTW) hypothesis for the origin of flight. The hypothesis posits that the transitional stages leading to the evolution of avian flight correspond both behaviourally and morphologically to the transitional stages observed in ontogenetic forms. Specifically, from flightless hatchlings to flight-capable juveniles, many ground birds express a ‘transitional wing’ during development that is representative of evolutionary transitional forms. Our experimental observations reveal that birds move their ‘proto-wings’, and their fully developed wings, through a stereotypic or fundamental kinematic pathway so that they may flap-run over obstacles, control descending flight and ultimately perform level flapping flight (Fig. 1). The OTW hypothesis provides a simple adaptive argument for the evolution of flight and can be tested and observed in extant fledglings. This hypothesis differs from other published accounts in that it is flap-based (in contrast to requiring a gliding precursor), involves an aerodynamically functional proto-wing, incorporates both the simultaneous and independent use of legs and wings and assumes that a fundamental wing-stroke (described herein) was established for aerodynamic function early in the bipedal ancestry leading to birds.This explanation, the team thinks, overcomes limitations in both previous hypotheses. The cursorial hypothesis fails to explain why “no extant species uses its wings to run faster, to secure prey or run�glide.” The arboreal hypothesis has to “assume a gliding form was prerequisite to flapping flight because half a wing would have no function, and that the flap-stroke appears too complex and thus relegated to the derived [i.e., flying] condition.” The new OTW hypothesis overcomes these pitfalls, he claims, by finding functions all the way up from running with outstretched forelimbs to full “fledged” flight. If this recaptures the evolution of flight, it answers the question, “what use is half a wing?” Science news reporters took up this hypothesis with triumphant fanfares: “Secrets of bird flight revealed” (BBC News), “All in a flap: New evidence of how birds took to flight” (PhysOrg). Is there any fossil support for the transition from running with outstretched forelimbs to flight? The paper did not refer to any fossils directly: only to “extinct taxa, such as the recently discovered fossil forms possessing what is assumed to be ‘half a wing’ and long cursorial legs” – but a check of the references showed only the 2004 paper about tyrannosaurids with unidentified skin filaments (10/06/2004) which may in fact have been flayed collagen fibers, not feathers (01/09/2008), and a paper co-authored by Dial about Microraptor gui which appears to have been an odd bird capable of flight (see 03/27/2007). The “long cursorial legs” referred to a year-2000 paper about Caudipteryx, now thought by many to be a flightless bird within the class Aves, not a dinosaur. None of these fossils appears pertinent to their hypothesis. One was a dinosaur in the T. rex family. Obviously, T. rex did not use its diminutive forearms for stabilization or flight! The other two were probably feathered birds already capable of powered flight. In short, the paper provided no fossil support and was based entirely on the behavior of modern true birds during their development. The so-called “ontogenetic transitional wing hypothesis” rests entirely, therefore, on a hunch that this behavior supplies indirect indications of a presumed evolutionary history.1. Kenneth P. Dial, Brandon E. Jackson and Paolo Segre, “A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight,” Nature advance online publication 23 January 2008, doi:10.1038/nature06517; Received 20 August 2007; Accepted 27 November 2007; Published online 23 January 2008.Ken Dial has been pushing this fictional plot for five years now. Our comments about his highly-speculative and unsupportable hypothesis, which rated the “dumb” award, bear re-reading (01/16/2003, 12/22/2003, 05/01/2006). He claims it is testable – but only on living birds that already have the genetics for flying. This is absurd. It amounts to nothing more than job security for storytellers (12/22/2003 commentary). Instead of repenting in shame, now he has added the Haeckel fallacy to it (to be explained shortly). Dr. Dial is apparently fond of chukars. That’s fine. If he wants to go hunting for them, or even videotape them to understand their wing function, great. No problem. But when he tries to weave an evolutionary tale about the ancestry of flight, he is way, way off scientific course. He is flapping Icarus wings in Fantasyland. Nothing like a little sunlight of scrutiny to melt them, sending his ideas crashing down. Over a century ago, Darwin-worshiper Ernst Haeckel promoted a similar idea. He thought the evolutionary history of animals was preserved in their embryonic development: a human embryo replayed its evolutionary history by going through a worm stage, a fish stage, and finally a mammal stage. This was dubbed the “Recapitulation Theory” and later was exalted into a law of nature, the so-called Biogenetic Law, by Haeckel. Darwin himself considered it the most powerful evidence of his theory. So strong was Haeckel’s belief and commitment to Pope Charlie, he notoriously doctored embryo drawings to support his pet hoax. Haeckel may have seemed the mild-mannered Jekyll, but his ideas led to a Hyde of terror. The Recapitulation Theory led to all kinds of social mischief, as described in articles by ICR and AIG. Scientific racism, Freudian psychology, and abortion trace their ancestry to Haeckel’s myth. Today, it is almost completely discredited by scientists, even evolutionary biologists. Why should an animal retain any genetic memory of presumed ancestors and play them out on an embryonic stage? Stephen Jay Gould was appalled by the idea. He dismantled the “biogenetic law” mercilessly in his books, announcing that it is, and should be defunct. Dr. Keith Thompson (Yale) said it went extinct in the 1920s and, as a scientific theory, is dead as a doornail. Someone needs to inform Dr. Dial that his revival of recapitulation theory is embarrassing. How can a living bird weave tales about dinosaurs evolving flight? The whole notion is crazy. Does Dr. Dial not realize that chukar partridge chicks have DNA for flight in every cell of their bodies? Regardless of how they get about before they grow strong enough to fly, how on earth can he presume to think that their behavior as chicks tells anything about some mythical evolutionary past? Where are the fossils? Where are the modern reptiles holding out their forelimbs in a series of transitions leading to powered flight? This is not science; it’s divination. When he looks into the crystal ball (the video screen) of chicks running up a ramp with forelimbs outstretched, the trance comes. Visions appear in his mind. He is transported mentally into a swamp 150 million years in the mythical past. Behold! A theropod stretches out its forelimbs and escapes the predator bearing down on him. OK; cut, time out. Turn off the video playback and turn the lights back on. Unless a random genetic mutation in the dino’s gonads helped its offspring run faster with outstretched forelimbs, significantly faster enough to make the slower guys die off, he has concocted a Lamarckian tale. This phony idea, which Dial has been preaching for five years at least, is Lamarckian, progressivist, and Haeckelian. It’s against the neo-Darwinist official party line. Why, then, is Nature giving this crackpot idea the time of day? Here’s why: all’s fair in love and war, and policy notwithstanding, any weapons that can be used against creationists, even old duds and lies, are fair game. This dud is dressed up in new jargon and fancy acronyms, but it won’t fly. If you want a shekel for your Haeckel, Dr. Dial, no sale. To sound convincing, rather than experiment with living birds that already have flight software, chase down some lizards until they take off into the air. Go experiment on the Geico gecko and see if holding out his forelimbs will help him fly some car insurance policies. Better yet, give up on evolutionary biology altogether. Do something useful with your life, like hunting some chukar meat for dinner, or marketing your videotapes to showcase the beautiful design of wings in these handsome birds. Then we will stop laughing.(Visited 21 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Some relatively minor moisture moves across the state today. We still think the best action today will end up being in over the southern half of Ohio, but we won’t rule out showers up north either. Rains from I-70 southward can be from .25”-.75” with 90% coverage, while north of I-70 today we can see a few hundredths to a tenth or two. Coverage in the north can be 40-50%. Far east central parts of Ohio may push above a quarter inch, though, so we need to watch that. Everything should be winding down by midnight tonight, if not before. The map at right shows expected rains through midnight tonight. The front that brings this moisture in also brings another push down in temps via colder air-mass. There will be some frost tomorrow morning, although at this point we do not expect it to be a strong frost, but a significant part of the state may be 35 degrees or below.Tuesday starts a mostly dry stretch. Right now, we are going to stick with our thoughts that this dry period runs a good 10 days. As with last week, we are still keeping a bit of an asterisk on this late this week into the start of the weekend. Some models are bringing a chance for a bit of moisture across the state from later Friday into Saturday. We won’t rule out spotty action at this time, but it is not enough for us to talk up moisture and harvest interruptions. It is a period of time that we will watch closely through the coming few days, and if we are making changes to this dry forecast, they will come sooner rather than later.All models are in agreement on dry weather again from Sunday through next Thursday. Temperatures will remain mostly normal to a bit below.The extended 11-16 day forecast period looks drier, and we are pushing our next front back a few days. That cold front may not move over the state until closer to the 29th, but still holds potential for a quarter to half an inch of liquid precipitation.
LATEST STORIES DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew Tan and Rodriguez have won three BVR on Tour legs this year while Barbon and Eslapor ruled Dumaguete in April.Abdilla and Lopez won the first three legs this season in the men’s division before Abria and Becaldo won in Lingayen.The Philippines’ first foray into the FIVB beach volleyball circuit in 2018 when it hosted the Beach World Tour with the partnership of Rondina and Gervacio finishing fifth—the highest the country got.ADVERTISEMENT Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting View comments Ronald Tubid sorry for punching PBA crasher Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netMANILA, Philippines—The Philippines is set to host an FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour 1-star event with Beach Volleyball Republic organizing a double-gender tournament in Boracay from May 23 to 26.The tournament has attracted a total of 20 women’s and 28 men’s teams from 17 countries with 11 pairs coming from the Philippines.ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid This will also feature the reunion of the indomitable pairing of Cherry Rondina and Bernadeth Pons who won two straight Philippine Super Liga beach volleyball titles and once represented the Philippines in the 29th Southeast Asian Beach Volleyball Championships.Other Philippine teams in the women’s division are the pairings of Dij Rodriguez & Bea Tan, Jackie Estoquia & DM Demontaño, and Fiola Ceballos and Patty Orendain.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsBabylove Barbon—Rondina’s last teammate in University of Santo Tomas in the UAAP Season 81 beach volleyball tournament—and Gen Eslapor will go through the qualifiers.Air Force’s Ranran Abdilla and Jesse Lopez will head the men’s teams that also include then partnerships of James Buytrago & Krung Arbasto, and Mike Abria & Jade Becaldo. PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue
India’s B Sai Praneeth defeated compatriot Kidambi Srikanth 21-17, 17-21, 21-12 in a tight contest to win Singapore Open Super Series on Sunday.It was Srikanth who started off on the high note by winning the first game 21-17 in 19 minutes. However, Praneeth pulled himself up and kept his composure to take the second game 21-17 after being trailing 1-6.In the deciding game, Praneeth maintained his lead since the beginning and never gave an opportunity to his training partner to settle down.Highlights: 14.19 IST: B Sai Praneeth beats compatriot Kidambi Srikanth 17-21, 21-17, 21-12 to win Singapore Open Super Series! Wonderful achievement from the man who becomes only the second player from India to win a men’s singles Super Series final.14.16 IST: Praneeth now just three points away from winning the match. It’s 18-1114.14 IST: Praneeth looks in total control now with a 16-8 lead.14.12 IST: Praneeth stretches his lead to 15-7 vs Kidambi.14.10 IST: Sai Praneeth leads 11-5 vs Kidambi Srikanth in deciding game. Wonder what Kidambi will do to turn this around.14.08 IST: Kidambi looks distraught as Praneeth races away with a 9-3 lead.14.06 IST: Praneeth sneaks in with a 3-point lead now to make it 5-2.14.04 IST: Kidambi starts the decider with a 2-0 lead over Praneeth.14.02 IST: B Sai Praneeth takes second game 21-17 vs Kidambi Srikanth to draw level in the match. Great achievement from Praneeth to force the match into the decider.13.59 IST: Praneeth grabs crucial 3-point lead vs Kidambi. It’s is 18-15 now!advertisement13.57 IST: It’s going neck and neck in the second game… the scores are level at 14-all.13.55 IST: Sai Praneeth leads 11-10 vs Kidambi Srikanth in second game13.53 IST: Kidambi doesn’t take long to snatch the lead again. It’s 10-9 now!13.52 IST: Praneeth leads for the first time in second game. It’s 9-8!13.51 IST: Praneeth makes a brilliant comeback to make it 7-7!13.50 IST: Kidambi loses the first challenge of the match. He leads 7-5 in second game.13.47 IST: Kidambi appears in total control at the moment. He opens up a 5-point lead. It’s 6-1 now!13.45 IST: Brilliant start for Kidambi in the second game. He now leads 2-0 vs Praneeth.13.44 IST: Kidambi Srikanth takes opening game 21-17 vs B Sai Praneeth. The game lasted for 19 minutes and the longest rally was of 23 shots.13.40 IST: Kidambi not letting Praneeth to settle down. He leads 19-14 now!13.36 IST: Not too many long rallies in this game as both players are aware of each other’s strategies. Sai Praneeth catches up… reduces gap to just one point. Its 15-14 now!13.35 IST: Kidambi maintains 4-point gap and makes it 15-11.13.32 IST: Kidambi now has a 4-point advantage over Praneeth at the break. It’s 11-7 in first game.13.30 IST: Kidambi races ahead with a 9-5 lead over Praneeth.13.28 IST: Kidambi leads 5-4 in neck and neck battle. Both the players know each other’s games well.13.25 IST: And the match gets underway! Praneeth picks the first point!13.24 IST: Interestingly, Praneeth has a 4-1 head-to-head record against his more illustrious compatriot, who had clinched the 2014 China Super Series Premier and 2015 India Super Series and also reached the quarterfinals of Rio Olympics.13.22 IST: Both Srikanth and Praneeth have made their way to the arena. Big moment for the Indians. However, the Indians fans probably wouldn’t know who to cheer for!13.10 IST: Meanwhile, Christinna Pedersen and Kamilla Rytter Juhl beat Misaki Matsutomo and Ayaka Takahashi 21-18, 14-21, 21-15 to win women’s doubles title. This is the first time in 25 years that an European pair has won the women’s doubles title in Singapore.13.05 IST: Praneeth was the first to make it to the summit clash after he executed his plans brilliantly to completely blow away his opponent in a 38-minute match.Srikanth, who had suffered a first-round exit at the India Open, then showed why he is considered one of the best Indian shuttlers right now as he fought back from 4-9 down in the opening game to never look back. 13.00 IST: For the first time in thehistory of badminton, two Indians will clash in a Super Seriesfinal with Kidambi Srikanth taking on B Sai Praneeth at theSingapore Open on Sunday. Only three nations — China, Indonesia and Denmark — have so far had two of their shuttlers playing in finals of a Super Series event.Preview: Men’s singles shuttlers Kidambi Srikanth and B Sai Praneeth on Saturday registered easy wins in the semi-finals of the $350,000 Singapore Open, marking the first instance of an all-India final in a Super Series event to be fought on Sunday.advertisementWorld No.29 Srikanth registered a thumping 21-13, 21-14 win over No.26 Anthony Sinisuka Ginting of Indonesia in 42 minutes at the Singapore Indoor Stadium.In the other semi-final, world No.30 Praneeth smashed past South Korean 35th-ranked Lee Dong Keun 21-6, 21-8 in 38 minutes to sail into the final.Though Srikanth is a bigger name than Praneeth, having won the 2014 China Super Series Premier and 2015 India Superseries and a quarter-final appearance at the Rio Olympics, the latter has a 4-1 head-to-head record. Srikanth will not be happy facing an opponent who knows his game and someone who has got the better of him so many times.But Srikanth has the big-game experience that will give him an added advantage.During the semi-final, Srikanth showed his experience against Ginting. He was trailing 4-9 in the first game and then he registered an emphatic 10 points on the trot in a display of aggressive badminton. Ginting couldn’t recover from this as he conceded the first game.In the second game, Srikanth continued his high jump smashes as he raced to a 9-1 lead. Ginting tried his best to came near Srikanth but it proved to be difficult. The closest Ginting came was at 14-16. But the Indian snatched five points on the trot to seal the game.Sai Praneeth was on a roll in the second semi-final. Keun looked a bit tired and couldn’t move well, while Praneeth rocked winners consistently.A 10-1 lead in the first game paved the way to a 21-6 win, while in the second game it was almost a similar show as the Indian cantered home to a 21-8 triumph.Meanwhile, the women’s singles title will be a contest between Olympic champion Carolina Marin of Spain and top seed Tai Tzu Ying of Chinese Taipei.
zoomImage Courtesy: Gasum Ltd LNG bunker vessel Coralius, operating on behalf of Finnish gas company Gasum, made its milestone 100th bunkering in late February.Gassum noted that Coralius reached this milestone in 18 months of operations, mainly in the North Sea and the Skagerrak area.Coralius was built by the Royal Bodewes in the Netherlands and is the first European-built LNG bunker and distribution vessel. It has a cargo capacity of 5,800 m3.Coralius delivers LNG through ship-to-ship bunkering at sea and in port. This has increased Gasum’s flexibility and responsiveness to vessels that require LNG but are unable to visit a terminal or a port.“With Coralius, we have been able to perform bunkering to different types of vessels, which is quite unique and demands us to be prepared for all types of vessels,” Kimmo Rahkamo, vice president of natural gas and LNG at Gasum, said. “The bunkering operations are swift and safe, and we have received great feedback from our customers. Coralius has definitely increased Gasum’s flexibility as an LNG supplier.”The company further said it expects an increase in the average amount of delivered stem, as it will perform bunkerings on shuttle tankers and other bigger vessels.